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Media manipulation can be subtle or direct, can be used by any political persuasion, and is used by all social classes.
Media manipulation is a series of related techniques in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. Such tactics may include the use of logical fallacies and propaganda techniques, and often involve the suppression of information or points of view by crowding them out, by inducing other people or groups of people to stop listening to certain arguments, or by simply diverting attention elsewhere. In Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes, Jacques Ellul writes that public opinion can only express itself through channels which are provided by the mass media of communication-without which there could be no propaganda.  It is used within public relations, propaganda, marketing, etc. While the objective for each context is quite different, the broad techniques are oftentimes similar. As illustrated below, many of the more modern mass media manipulation methods are types of distraction, on the assumption that the public has a limited attention span.
1.3 Psychological warfare
1.6 Political campaigning
1.7 Public relations
2.1 Distraction types
2.1.1 Distraction by nationalism
2.1.2 Straw man fallacy
2.1.3 Distraction by scapegoat
2.1.4 Distraction by phenomenon
2.1.5 Distraction by semantics
2.1.6 Distraction by regression
2.1.7 Distraction by misleading
2.1.8 Distraction by horror
2.2 Other types
2.2.1 Appeal to consensus
2.2.3 Demonisation of the opposition
2.2.4 Fear mongering
3 Compliance professionals
4 See also
5 Notes and references
6 Further reading
7 External links
Main article: Advertising
Commercial advertising tends to be created by companies to encourage consumption of their products or services. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. This is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade an audience to continue or take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media; including mass media such as newspaper, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such as blogs, websites or text messages.
Main article: Propaganda
Propagandizing is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitudes of a community toward some cause or position by presenting only one side of an argument. Propaganda is commonly created by governments, but many forms of mass-communication created by other powerful organisations, such as the Media, can be considered propaganda as well. As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda, in its most basic sense, presents information primarily to influence an audience. Propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media in order to create the chosen result in audience attitudes. While the term propaganda has justifiably acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and jingoistic examples (e.g. Nazi Propaganda used to justify the Holocaust), propaganda in its original sense was considered neutral, and could refer to uses that were generally benign or innocuous, such as public health recommendations, signs encouraging citizens to participate in a census or election, or messages encouraging persons to report crimes to the police, among others.
Main article: Psychological warfare
Psychological warfare is sometimes considered synonymous with propaganda. The principal distinction being that propaganda normally occurs within a nation, whereas psychological warfare normally takes place between nations, oftentimes during war or cold war. Various techniques are used to influence a target's values, beliefs, emotions, motives, reasoning, or behavior. Target audiences can be governments, organizations, groups, and individuals.
Main article: Hoax
Hoaxes are a form of practical joke that typically uses the techniques of media manipulation to encourage people to believe in some outlandish lie or object. It differs from most other media manipulation contexts in that there is rarely any attempt to influence behaviour, though occasionally a hoax may form part of a fraud or a hoax item may be promoted as a commercial attraction.
Some hoaxes are not a context, but a media manipulation technique describing deceptive materials created for some other context. Such as the "Iraq Dossier" is an example of propaganda used to promote the idea of going to war.
Main articles: Marketing and Sales
Marketing is a series of systems used by companies to communicate the value of a product or service to customers. Marketing might sometimes be interpreted as the art of selling products, but selling is only a small fraction of marketing. It is broader and less focused than "advertising," it is an overall strategy to promoting a product or service. From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a societys material requirements and its economic patterns of response. Sales is a key part of marketing, in media manipulation terms it is a way of matching producers and consumers.
Main article: Political campaign
Political campaigning is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns, wherein representatives are chosen or referendums are decided. In modern politics, the most high profile political campaigns are focused on candidates for head of state or head of government, often a President or Prime Minister. Political campaigns are often organised by wealthy individuals and political parties working in concert.
Main article: Public relations
Public relations (PR) is the management of the flow of information between an individual or an organization and the public. Public relations may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment. PR is generally created by specialised individuals or firms at the behest of already public individuals or organizations, as a way of managing their public profile.
Main article: Activism
Activism tends to be created by smaller movements or individuals in effort to improve conditions for the greater good. It consists of efforts to enact, impede, or direct activities to affect social changes. Activism can take a wide range of forms from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political campaigning, economic activism such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing businesses, rallies, street marches, strikes, sit-ins, and hunger strikes. While generally considered a positive peruit, some activists may try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, using some of the other methods outlined here, rather than to persuade governments to change or not to change laws. A cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, and generally does not lobby or protest politically. For example, clergymen often exhort their parishioners to follow a particular moral code or system. Not all view this as a true form of Activism.
Distraction by nationalism
Media manipulation is often used to promote certain behaviours.
Main article: Transfer (propaganda)
This is a variant on the traditional ad hominem and bandwagon fallacies applied to entire countries. The method is to discredit opposing arguments by appealing to nationalistic pride or memory of past accomplishments, or appealing to fear or dislike of a specific country, or of foreigners in general. It can be very powerful as it discredits foreign journalists (the ones that are least easily manipulated by domestic political or corporate interests).
Example: "You want to know what I really think of the Europeans?" asked the senior United States State Department official. "I think they have been wrong on just about every major international issue for the past 20 years.".
Example: "Your idea sounds similar to what they are proposing in Turkey. Are you saying the Turks have a better country than us?"
Example: "The only criticisms of this proposed treaty come from the United States. But we all know that Americans are arrogant and uneducated, so their complaints are irrelevant."
Example: The "Support Our Troops" campaign created by the Republican party during the War on Terror implies that opposing the war effort detracts support away from the individual soldiers fighting the war. Thus patriotic support of the troops becomes a form of support for the war in general.
Straw man fallacy
Main article: Straw man
The "straw man fallacy" is the lumping of a strong opposition argument together with one or many weak ones to create a simplistic weak argument that can easily be refuted.
Example: Grouping all opposed to the 2003 invasion of Iraq as "pacifists", so they can be refuted by arguments for war in general.
Distraction by scapegoat
Main article: Scapegoat
A combination of straw man and ad hominem, in which your weakest opponent (or easiest to discredit) is considered as your only important opponent.
Example: if many people oppose the new law, but one of them, say Tsutomu Miyazaki, is obviously acting out of self-interest, mention mostly Tsutomu Miyazaki.
Example: if many countries oppose an action, but one of them, say Andorra, is obviously acting out of self-interest, mention mostly Andorra.
Distraction by phenomenon
A risky but effective strategy summarized best, perhaps, by David Mamet's 1997 movie Wag the Dog, by which the public can be distracted, for long periods of time, from an important issue, by one which occupies more news time. When the strategy works, you have a war or other media event taking attention away from misbehaving or crooked leaders. When the strategy does not work, the leader's misbehavior remains in the press, and the war is derided as an attempted distraction.
Example: US President Bill Clinton's cruise missile strikes on Afghanistan and Sudan in August 1998 has been suggested as a means to distract attention from the Monica Lewinsky affair.
Distraction by semantics
This involves using euphemistically pleasing terms to obscure the truth. For example saying "reproductive rights", "pro-choice", or "pro-life" instead of referring to the medical term "abortion". The concept of "states' rights" was invoked to defend the continuation of slavery in the United States on the eve of the American Civil War, and again to fight against the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. The work of Frank Luntz is a notable example when focus groups are convened and the favorable or unfavorable characterizations are used in the selection of special code wording. The more favorable characterization of politicized concepts is thus chosen for future political campaign repetition.
Distraction by regression
This method uses the previous state of the opponent propaganda to prevent the negotiation of actual issues.
Distraction by misleading
This method injects false issues into the opponent's propaganda or attempts to create connections with falsities. Repetition of falsehoods from numerous outlets, nearly simultaneously, is one of the most effective means to mislead by distraction.
Distraction by horror
This method tries to create a connection between an opponent's propaganda and horrific events. (For example when a minority is being arrested by the police and one attempts to create a connection with past unjust actions)
Appeal to consensus
Main article: Argumentum ad populum
By appealing to a real or fictional "consensus" compliance professionals attempt to create the perception that their opinion is the only opinion, so that alternative ideas are dismissed from public consideration. In other words, the basic idea of the argument is: "If many believe so, it is so." Michael Crichton explains:
Historically, the claim of consensus has been the first refuge of scoundrels; it is a way to avoid debate by claiming that the matter is already settled. Whenever you hear the consensus of scientists agrees on something or other, reach for your wallet, because you're being had.
Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus.
Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus.
Main article: Censorship
Censorship is a technique whereby public communication is suppressed. It can be done by powerful organizations such as governments or moral campaigns, or by individuals who engage in self-censorship. It occurs for a variety of reasons including national security, to control obscenity, child pornography, and hate speech, to protect children, to promote or restrict political or religious views, to prevent slander and libel, and to protect intellectual property. It can be a way of influencing the public discourse, by determining what can and cannot be said. It may or may not be legal.
Demonisation of the opposition
Main article: Propaganda#Techniques of propaganda generation
This is a more general case of distraction by nationalism. Opposing views are ascribed to an out-group or hated group, and thus dismissed out of hand. This approach, carried to extremes, becomes a form of suppression, as in McCarthyism, where anyone disapproving of the government was considered "un-American" and "Communist" and was likely to be denounced.
Example: The consignment of almost all dissent to the "International Jewish conspiracy" by Nazi Germany.
Example: Labelling those with any sort of right-wing views as "Nazis", or those with left-wing views as "commies", etc.
Example: Dismissing attendees of tea-party protests opposing government spending as racists.
Main article: Fear mongering
Fear mongering (or scaremongering) is the use of fear to influence the opinions and actions of others towards some specific end. The feared object or subject is sometimes exaggerated, and the pattern of fear mongering is usually one of repetition, in order to continuously reinforce the intended effects of this tactic to frighten citizens and influence their political views. It often states that if something is or is not done, a disastrous event will occur, and that by voting for or against it this can be prevented. The end result is the voter being scared into changing their vote or opinion to one more favorable to the person that is fear mongering. In a good marginalization, there is reason to believe the claim because the professional says the claim is true. This is because a person who is a legitimate expert is more likely to be right than wrong when making considered claims within his area of expertise.
Example: "If we don't approve the McCarran Internal Security Act the Soviets will take over America."
Example: "We cannot wait for the final proof the smoking gun that could come in the form of a mushroom cloud." (US President George W. Bush, making the case for declaring war on Iraq)
Example: "If we don't get rid of Workchoices, your employer will sack you or cut your pay in half."
A compliance professional is an expert that utilizes and perfects means of gaining media influence. Though the means of gaining influence are common, their aims vary from political, economic, to personal. Thus the label of compliance professional applies to diverse groups of people, including propagandists, marketers, pollsters, salespeople and political advocates.
Means of influence include, but are not limited to, the methods outlined in Influence Science and Practice:
Commitment and Consistency
Additionally, techniques like framing and less formal means of effective obfuscation, such as the use of logical fallacies, are used to gain compliance.
Posted Mar 20, 2013 9:08 am GMT